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ACTIVE  INGREDIENTS
 
 

What is Kojic Acid?

 

Kojic Acid (5-Hydoxy-4-Pyran-4-One-2-Methyl)
A fungal metabollic product, Kojic acid inhibits the catecholase activity of tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting, essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the skin pigment melanin. Kojic Acid also is consumed widely in the Japanese diet with the belief that it is of benefit to health. Indeed, it has been shown to significantly enhance neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. Melanocytes treated with Kojic Acid become nondendritic with a decreased melanin content. Additionally, it scavenges reactive Oxygen species that are released excessively from cells or generated in tissue or blood.

  Kojic acid under Microscope.  
Kojic Acid is used in concentrations ranging from 1-4%. Although effective as a skin-lightening gel, it has been reported to have high-sensitizing potential and cause irritant contact dermatitis. In a study comparing Glycolic Acid / Kojic Acid combination with Glycolic Acid / HQ, no statistical difference in efficacy existed between Kojic Acid and HQ. However, the Kojic Acid preparation was reported to be more irritating.
 
               
 
               
What are Alpha Hydroxy Acids?  
   
Alpha-Hydroxy Acids are naturally occurring acids, derived from the sugars in particular plants. Some examples are Glycolic Acid (Sugar Cane), Lactic Acid (Milk), Tartaric Acid (Grapes), Citric Acid (Citrus Fruits), Malic Acid (Apples), and Mandelic Acid (Bitter Almonds). These acids work at the very base of the stratum corneum, dissolving the cement that holds dead skin cells together. This increases cell turnover and influences the structure of new stratum corneum being made. This results in skin that is more flexible, more smooth, and more even in tone. At greater concentrations (12%-40%), deeper dermal effects, such as higher amounts of mucopolysaccharides and collagen and increased skin thickness, are observed. Eventually, alpha hydroxy acids will produce skin that is softer, smoother, less wrinkled, less dehydrated, and more even in skin tone.
     

Grape seed extract contains chemicals known as polyphenols, (including the subclass of proanthocyanidins), which are recognized to be effective antioxidants. Substances thought to protect body cells from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation, which produces oxygen free radicals; antioxidants are believed to work in a number of ways. They may lessen oxidation, they may inactivate oxygen free radicals, and/or they may restore at least some normal functioning to tissues damaged by oxygen free radicals.

 

 
How Vitamin C works?     

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is probably one of the most highly publicized, yet least understood, of all of the vitamins. Championed by Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, Ph.D., and advocated by many nutrition buffs, vitamin C is indeed a fascinating and important nutrient (or micronutrient) necessary for human life. Vitamin C is important to all animals, including humans, because it is vital to the production of collagen.
When collagen is produced, there is a complex series of events, some occurring inside of the cell, and some outside of the cell. Vitamin C is active inside of the cell, where it hydroxylates (adds hydrogen and oxygen) to two amino acids: proline and lysine. This helps form a precursor molecule called procollagen that is later packaged and modified into collagen outside of the cell. Without vitamin C, collagen formation is disrupted, causing a wide variety of problems throughout the body

 
     

What is Tocopheryl Acetate?

   

Tocopherol Acetate has quickly become one of the most popular Vitamin E products to date. The ester of Tocopherol and Acetic Acid, a man-made form of Vitamin E that helps protect the skin . Its activity is released by enzymes in the epidermis. Powerful free-radical scavenger, one molecule of Tocopherol Acetate can neutralize fifty radical particles (uncombined oxygen ions which damage tissues) in the skin.
Vitamin E. Prevents rancidity. An anti-oxidant in creams, lotions, sun products, makeup, foundations, baby preparations, deodorant, and hair grooming aids. Obtained by the vacuum distillation of edible oils, rendered animal fats, or a combination of such fats with vegetable oils. Helps form normal red blood breakdown. Experimental evidence shows Vitamin E may protect the heart and blood vessels and retard aging. (Natural Vitamin E is of higher cost than synthetic variety) We use the Natural Vitamin E.